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Bronchial Pneumonia Contagious

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1 Bronchial Pneumonia Contagious on Mon Jun 06, 2016 4:03 am

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Bronchial Pneumonia Contagious and Fluoroquinolone


The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960. Laughing


Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice "oil pulling" Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety Get more familiar with Chronic Bronchitis once you finish reading this article. Only then will you realize the importance of Chronic Bronchitis in your day to day life.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were 4 reasons you must use them were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species. We wish to stress on the importance and the necessity and bronchitis through this article. This is because we see the need of propagating its necessity and importance!

Gastrointestinal Effects

The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped.

Third Generation

The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species. If you find anything extra mentioning about Bronchitis, do inform us. It is only through the exchange of views and information will we learn more about Bronchitis. Embarassed

Second Generation

The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections. Surprised.


Safety of the Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics: Focus on Molecular

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