what is bronchitis

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1 Cigarette Smoking on Sun May 22, 2016 9:58 am

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Asthmatic Bronchitis Smoking

Chronic bronchitis is eckerd college respiratory disease that involves inflammation and infection of the bronchial tubes, mucosal membranes and tissues. The disease is manifested by an overproduction of mucus that results in temporary obstruction of the airways. In the first stages of chronic bronchitis, the disease only affects the major airways, generating milder and less persistent symptoms. However, in more advanced stages of chronic bronchitis all airways are affected, preventing the proper oxygenation of the lungs due to pronounced obstruction of the respiratory tract. As the disease progresses further, chronic bronchitis sufferers may develop serious complications at the level of the lungs. Complicated forms of chronic bronchitis often involve emphysema or pneumonia.

More informations about bronchitis symptoms or asthmatic bronchitis can be found by visiting ***** About the Author: We can proudly say that there is no competition to the meaning of Chronic Bronchitis Symptom, when comparing this article with other articles on Chronic Bronchitis symptoms found on the net.

An interesting fact is that chronic bronchitis also has a high incidence among former smokers, suggesting the long-term damage caused by cigarette smoking to the organism. Physicians sustain that it takes several months or even years until the undesirable effects of smoking at the level of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems disappear completely. On the premises of genetic predispositions for respiratory, pulmonary or cardio-vascular diseases, regular smokers are even more susceptible to developing chronic bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis is responsible for causing the so called "smoker's cough". This persistent, highly productive cough has a pronounced recurrent character. In the incipient phase of chronic bronchitis, this symptom usually occurs in the morning and clears within a few hours. As the disease progresses, "the smoker's cough" is ongoing and it rarely ameliorates without the aid of medical treatment. When the cough produces blood or yellowish mucus, it is a major indicator of complications, suggesting the spreading of the disease at pulmonary level.

Although there are various causes of chronic bronchitis, the disease is often linked with cigarette smoking. Recent studies indicate that both active and passive smoking greatly contribute to the occurrence of chronic bronchitis. In addition, smoking facilitates the progression of the disease and decreases the potency of specific medications. Smoking weakens the natural defenses of the respiratory tract, facilitates the proliferation of bacteria and slows down the healing of the soft tissues, membranes and organs involved in breathing.

Recent statistics reveal that there are more than 14 million people with chronic bronchitis in the United States. Around 17 percent of overall chronic bronchitis cases are diagnosed in regular smokers while around 12 percent of cases are diagnosed in former smokers. Studies in the field suggest that regular smokers are 85 percent more exposed to developing chronic bronchitis than non-smokers. The risk of developing chronic bronchitis is directly proportional with the number of cigarettes smoked. We do not mean to show some implication that Asthmatic Bronchitis have to rule the world or something like that. We only mean to let you know the actual meaning of Asthmatic Bronchitis!

The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.

Fourth Generation. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan). As we got to writing on Bronchitis, we found that the time we were given to write was inadequate to write all that there is to write about Bronchitis! So vast are its resources.

Second Generation. The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of alcorn state university tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections. People are inclined to think that some matter found here that is pertaining to Chronic Bronchitis is false. However, rest is assured, all that is written here is true!

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. With people wanting to learn more about Bronchitis, it has provided the necessary incentive for us to write this interesting lung infections bronchitis!

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible.

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin. Surprised.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days. The more interesting an article, the more takers there are for the article. So we have made it a point to make this article on Chronic Bronchitis as interesting as possible! Wink

Side effects

The fluoroquinolones as a class are generally well tolerated. Most adverse effects are mild in severity, self-limited, and rarely result in treatment discontinuation. However, they can have serious adverse effects.

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications. We have not actually resorted to roundabout means of getting our message on Bronchitis through to you. All the matter here is genuine and to the point.





Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Embarassed

Fluoroquinolones advantages: Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety It is the normal style of writers to add additional information with the intention of lengthening the length of an article. However, we have provided a short and concise article with only required information on Bronchitis.

First Generation

The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. We were rather indecisive on where to stop in our writings of Chronic Bronchitis. We just went on writing and writing to give a long article.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing. The length of an article is rather immaterial about its response from people. People are more interested in the matter about Chronic Bronchitis, and not length. Embarassed

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Fluoroquinolones disadvantages: Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents The value of this composition is achieved if after reading it, your knowledge on Nebulizer bronchitis is greatly influenced. This is how we find out that the meaning of Chronic Bronchitis has really entered you!

Third Generation

The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species.

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

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